Philippines

Philippines

OVERVIEW

The 2014 Comprehensive Agreement on Bangsamoro was internationally recognised for its relatively high level of meaningful participation by women in both the formal negotiations and parallel peacebuilding efforts. This has translated into a strong level of formal political participation for women in the Philippine national parliament and in the peace process itself. However, insecurity and gender-based violence (GBV) persists throughout the country, which affects women’s meaningful economic and political participation in rural areas and especially in Mindanao. Prolonged Islamic and Communist insurgencies for the past fifty years has severely affected development and security within the Mindanao and neighbouring islands. It has spawned a host of clan-based and organised violence that operates with impunity. The Bangsamoro peace process has continually committed to the practice of including women participants, and implementing provisions on women’s participation. Annexes to the agreements signed between the Philippines government and the Mindanao insurgent forces include strong gender provisions, which, among other aspects, refer to financial support for the political and economic empowerment of women, and contribute to rehabilitation for decommissioned women fighters. However, significant constraints persist for women’s inclusive participation beyond the peace process. These main constraints include the absence of women in security sector reform and transitional justice processes; the ongoing culture of violence, impunity, clan-wars, and displacement which continues to affect the safe participation of women, particularly indigenous women; and finally, that the intense conflict risks perpetuating patriarchal attitudes towards women amongst some communities.

STRENGTH OF GENDER PROVISIONS

Philippines – Agreement on Peace Between the GRP and MILF 2001

0
None
1
Weakest
2 3 4 5
Strongest
Human Rights
Development
Post-Conflict Issues
Violence Against Women
Participation
General

Philippines Memorandum of Agreement between Philippines and CBA/CPLA (Closure Agreement) 2011

0
None
1
Weakest
2 3 4 5
Strongest
Human Rights  
Development
Post-Conflict Issues
Violence Against Women
Participation
General

Agreement on the Bangsamoro 2014

0
None
1
Weakest
2 3 4 5
Strongest
Human Rights
Development  
Post-Conflict Issues
Violence Against Women
Participation  
General

WOMEN’S PARTICIPATION:
KEY CONSTRAINTS AND ENABLERS

Constraints

  1. Culture of violence
  2. Minimal to no presence of women in the security sector and minimum transitional justice processes
  3. Civic participation is difficult and dangerous
  4. Increased displacement and disenfranchisement of those already displaced/marginalised

Enablers

  1. Cross-sector references to women in the agreement and annexes
  2. Women’s representation is being sustained in the process
  3. Sustained donor engagement in women’s participation
  4. Strong civil society networks